Batteries, especially lithium-ion technologies, have been an integral part of the advances in portable electronic devices, such as cell phones and lap-top computers. Lithium-ion cells provide compact, safe, high energy density power for many small electronic devices.

With ever-increasing demands for high capacity and/or high energy density, particularly for electric vehicles and energy storage systems, Li-air and Na-ion batteries are explored. We are searching for new anode and cathode materials to meet those requirements with mechanistic studies on the intercalation/deintercalation process and the oxygen reduction reaction for Li-ion, Li-air, and Na-ion batteries.